A timeline of how the mosquito borne disease spread globally, and in India

A timeline of how the mosquito borne illness unfold globally, and in India

Transmitted by mosquitoes, Zika is a viral an infection and the signs are much like dengue together with fever, pores and skin rashes and joint ache. Moreover, contaminated individuals can transmit the virus sexually

A statewide alert was issued in all districts of Kerala on Friday following the detection of 14 instances of Zika virus in Thiruvananthapuram district. Kerala well being minister Veena George has confirmed the infections.

The state had reported its first case of the mosquito-borne illness on Thursday when a 24-year-old pregnant girl was recognized with it. Nevertheless, the federal government was was awaiting affirmation from the Nationwide Institute of Virology (NIV) at Pune.

Of the 19 samples despatched from Thiruvananthapuram to NIV, 13 well being staff, together with medical doctors, are suspected to be optimistic for Zika, the well being minister mentioned.

The continuing monsoon rains have turned the affected areas into “breeding floor for the mosquitoes”, George instructed reporters on Friday. The mosquito-borne virus has been linked to shrunken brains in youngsters and a uncommon auto-immune illness referred to as Guillain-Barre syndrome.

What’s Zika virus?

First recognized in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys, Zika was later recognized in people in 1952. Transmitted by mosquitoes, Zika is a viral an infection and the signs are much like dengue together with fever, pores and skin rashes and joint ache. Moreover, contaminated individuals can transmit Zika sexually.

Sporadic instances have been reported all through the world because the Sixties, however the first outbreak occurred solely in 2007 within the Island of Yap within the Pacific. In 2015, a significant outbreak in Brazil led to the revelation that Zika may be related to microcephaly, a situation by which infants are born with small and underdeveloped brains.

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In response to the Centre for Illness Management (CDC), extreme illness requiring hospitalisation and deaths are unusual. Nevertheless, in uncommon instances, Zika could trigger Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).

How did Zika begin spreading

The primary giant outbreak brought on by the Zika an infection was reported from the Island of Yap in 2007. After years of sporadic studies in Africa, the 2 different main outbreak of the illness occurred in French Polynesia (2013-2014) and South America (2015-2016).

A timeline of the mosquito-borne Zika virus

1947: Scientists conducting routine surveillance for yellow fever within the Zika forest of Uganda remoted the Zika virus in samples taken from a captive, sentinel rhesus monkey.

1948: The virus was recovered from the mosquito Aedes africanus, caught on a tree platform within the Zika forest.

1952: The primary human instances have been detected in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania in a examine demonstrating the presence of neutralising antibodies to Zika virus in sera.

1969–1983: The recognized geographical distribution of Zika expanded to equatorial Asia, together with India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan, the place the virus was detected in mosquitos. In Africa, sporadic instances occured, however no outbreak was detected and the illness in people continued to be thought to be uncommon, with gentle signs.

2007: Zika began spreading from Africa and Asia to trigger the primary giant outbreak in people on the Pacific island of Yap, within the Federated States of Micronesia. Previous to this occasion, no outbreak and solely 14 instances of human Zika virus illness had been documented worldwide

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2013–2014: The virus precipitated outbreaks in 4 different teams of Pacific islands: French Polynesia, Easter Island, the Prepare dinner Islands, and New Caledonia. The outbreak in French Polynesia, producing 1000’s of suspected infections, was intensively investigated. The outcomes have been reported to the World Well being Organisation (WHO) on 24 November, 2015, and 27 January, 2016.

2 March, 2015: Brazil notified WHO of studies of an sickness characterised by pores and skin rashes in northeastern states.

From February 2015 to 29 April, 2015, practically 7,000 instances of sickness with pores and skin rash have been reported in these states. All instances have been gentle, with no reported deaths. Zika was not suspected at this stage, and no exams for Zika have been carried out.

1 February, 2016: WHO declared that the latest affiliation of Zika an infection with clusters of microcephaly and different neurological problems constituted a Public Well being Emergency of Worldwide Concern.

Zika’s passage to India

In India, Zika virus was first recorded in 1952-53. The nation reported an outbreak in Gujarat in 2016-17. This was adopted by main outbreaks in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in 2018. In late 2018, 159 instances of Zika virus an infection have been reported in Rajasthan and 127 in Madhya Pradesh, in response to a Lancet examine.

Previous to this, three instances have been detected in Bapunagar space in Gujarat’s Ahmedabad district in Might 2017. One case was additionally reported from Krishnagiri district on Tamil Nadu in July 2017.

The outbreak in India highlighted the unfold of this illness past geographical limitations owing to the rising globalisation, elevated journey and ubiquitous presence of its vector, the Aedes mosquito.

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Any protocol that governments comply with when Zika instances are reported?

Governments take mosquito management measures equivalent to spraying of pesticides, use of repellents, and so on. Due to the potential of congenital abnormalities and sexual transmission, there’s additionally concentrate on contraceptives.

The WHO requires international locations to counsel sexually lively women and men on the matter to minimise possibilities of conception on the time of an outbreak.

Zika virus prevention

Aedes mosquitoes and their breeding websites pose a big danger issue for Zika virus an infection. Prevention and management depends on decreasing mosquitoes via supply discount (elimination and modification of breeding websites) and decreasing contact between mosquitoes and other people.

For supply discount of mosquito breeding, you will need to empty, clear or cowl containers that may maintain water equivalent to buckets, flower pots or tyres, in order that locations, the place mosquitoes can breed, are eliminated. Throughout outbreaks, spraying of pesticides ought to be carried out.

Is there any remedy for Zika virus

Zika has no remedy or vaccine. The signs of Zika virus are gentle and often require relaxation, consumption of loads of fluids, widespread ache and fever medicines, the WHO mentioned.

With inputs from companies

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